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Infants and Toddlers

Common issues of infants and toddlers successfully treated at

AAA Kinisi & Pedi



Torticollis is a clinical sign of asymmetric neck function, which may result from various underlying causes. However, the leading causes in infancy are muscular.



Positional plagiocephaly is a condition where one side of the baby's head at the back tends to become flat.


Brachial Plexus Paresis

Injuries caused to the brachial plexus during the birth can leave infants with upper extremity deficiencies, depending on the area of damage within the complex plexus anatomy. The severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of nerve damage, from moderate weakness to complete resolution to total paralysis of movement and sensation in the hand.


Hip dysplasia

Developmental dysplasia of the hip includes a wide range of hip lesions (from simple dysplasia to dislocation). It is characterized by a pathological modification of the acetabulum and/or the femoral head, with consequent abnormalities of the soft tissues (hip capsule and ligaments). The femoral head could be inside the acetabulum (normal), partially outside the acetabulum (half-dislocation), or outside the acetabulum (dislocation). This painful condition occurs mainly in boys. Symptoms of the condition are when the child limps (limps) when walking, the leg appears shorter with muscle hypertrophy in the thigh muscles and limited range of motion.


Pes equinus – Toe Walking

Most infants with idiopathic toe walking will spontaneously resolve to a typical walking pattern. Therefore, the treatment is not indicated until at least two years of age. There are many treatment options, including the combination of exercises, casts, and braces. Surgery is rarely indicated. The spontaneous resolution does not always occur, but it is rare to see a child with toe walking after school age.



Clubfoot is a congenital (from birth) deformity of the foot and is among the most common bone and leg joints deformities in newborns. The incidence is approximately 1 in 1000 infants. The causes of clubfoot are not precisely known, but is probably a genetic disorder.

Supination and Pronation


Hypotonia – Hypertonia

Motor development in infancy is a complex process in which many elements are involved. Muscle tone is one of them. Hypotonia is very low muscle tone, implying an abnormally low resistance during passive movements. Hypotonia often occurs in infants younger than 6 months of age and has little clinical significance in the absence of other neurologic signs.
Hypertonia is defined as an abnormally high resistance during passive movements. Congenital hypertension is relatively rare and is frequently associated with severe neurological pathology.

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